React interview question

What is the difference between ShadowDOM and VirtualDOM?


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1. Document Object Model:

It a way of representing a structured document via objects. It is cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with data in HTML, XML, and others. Web browsers handle the DOM implementation details, so we can interact with it using JavaScript and CSS.

2. Virtual DOM:

Virtual DOM is any kind of representation of a real DOM. Virtual DOM is about avoiding unnecessary changes to the DOM, which are expensive performance-wise, because changes to the DOM usually cause re-rendering of the page. It allows to collect several changes to be applied at once, so not every single change causes a re-render, but instead re-rendering only happens once after a set of changes was applied to the DOM.

3. Shadow DOM:

Shadow DOM is mostly about encapsulation of the implementation. A single custom element can implement more-or-less complex logic combined with more-or-less complex DOM. Shadow DOM refers to the ability of the browser to include a subtree of DOM elements into the rendering of a document, but not into the main document DOM tree.


The virtual DOM creates an additional DOM. The shadow DOM simply hides implementation details and provides isolated scope for web components.

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